Patakosmos
Pataphysicians

Ubu roi

Ubu Roi
Programme for the première of Ubu Roi.jpg
Programme from the première
Written byAlfred Jarry
Date premieredDecember 10, 1896 (1896-12-10)
Place premieredParis
Original languageFrench
SeriesUbu Cocu
Ubu Enchaîné

Ubu Roi (Ubu the King or King Ubu) is a play by Alfred Jarry. It was first performed in Paris at the Théâtre de l'Œuvre, causing a riotous response in the audience as it opened and closed on December 10, 1896.[1][2] It is considered a wild, bizarre and comic play, significant for the way it overturns cultural rules, norms, and conventions. To some of those who were in the audience on opening night, including W. B. Yeats and the poet and essayist Catulle Mendès, it seemed an event of revolutionary importance, but many were mystified and outraged by the seeming childishness, obscenity, and disrespect of the piece. It is now seen by some to have opened the door for what became known as modernism in the twentieth century.[3] It is a precursor to Dada, Surrealism and the Theatre of the Absurd. It is the first of three stylised burlesques in which Jarry satirises power, greed, and their evil practices—in particular the propensity of the complacent bourgeoisie to abuse the authority engendered by success.

The title is sometimes translated as King Turd; however, the word "Ubu" is actually merely a nonsense word that evolved from the French pronunciation of the name "Hebert",[4] which was the name of one of Jarry's teachers who was the satirical target and inspirer of the first versions of the play.[5]

Jarry made some suggestions regarding how his play should be performed. He wanted King Ubu to wear a cardboard horse's head in certain scenes, "as in the old English theatre", for he intended to "write a guignol". He thought a "suitably costumed person would enter, as in puppet shows, to put up signs indicating the locations of the various scenes". He also wanted costumes with as little specific local colour reference or historical accuracy as possible.[6]

Ubu Roi was followed by Ubu Cocu (Ubu Cuckolded) and Ubu Enchaîné (Ubu in Chains), neither of which was performed during Jarry's 34-year life.[7] One of his later works, a novel/essay on "pataphysics", is offered as an explanation behind the ideas that underpin Ubu Roi. Pataphysics is, as Jarry explains, "the science of the realm beyond metaphysics". Pataphysics is a pseudo-science Jarry created to critique members of the academy. It studies the laws that "govern exceptions and will explain the universe supplementary to this one". It is the "science of imaginary solutions".[8]

Synopsis

Alfred Jarry, Deux aspects de la marionnette originale d'Ubu Roi, premiered at the Théâtre de l'Œuvre on 10 December 1896

The story is a parody of Shakespeare's Macbeth and some parts of Hamlet and King Lear. Though the writing and dialogue is obscene and childish, the material began to express something deeper, an inner consciousness in a way that is similar to the Symbolists, with some critics considering Jarry a Symbolist author.[1][9]

As the play begins, Ubu's wife convinces him to lead a revolution, and kills the King of Poland and most of the royal family. The King's son, Bougrelas, and the Queen escape, but the latter later dies. The ghost of the dead king appears to his son and calls for revenge. Back at the palace, Ubu, now King, begins heavily taxing the people and killing the nobles for their wealth. Ubu's henchman gets thrown into prison; who then escapes to Russia, where he has the Tsar declare war on Ubu. As Ubu heads out to confront the invading Russians, his wife tries to steal the money and treasures in the palace. She is driven away by Bougrelas, who is leading a revolt of the people against Ubu. She runs away to her husband, Ubu, who has, in the meantime, been defeated by the Russians, been abandoned by his followers, and been attacked by a bear. Ubu's wife pretends to be the angel Gabriel, in order to try to scare Ubu into forgiving her for her attempt to steal from him. They fight, and she is rescued by the entrance of Bougrelas, who is after Ubu. Ubu knocks down the attackers with the body of the dead bear, after which he and his wife flee to France, which ends the play.

The action contains motifs found in the plays of Shakespeare: a king's murder and a scheming wife from Macbeth, the ghost from Hamlet, Fortinbras' revolt from Hamlet, the reneging of Buckingham's reward from Richard III, and the pursuing bear from The Winter's Tale. It also includes other cultural references, for example, to Sophocles' Oedipus Rex (Œdipe Roi in French) in the play's title. Ubu Roi is considered a descendant of the comic grotesque French Renaissance author François Rabelais and his Gargantua and Pantagruel novels.[10][11]

The language of the play is a unique mix of slang code-words, puns and near-gutter vocabulary, set to strange speech patterns.[12]

Development

"The beginnings of the original Ubu", writes Jane Taylor, "have attained the status of legend within French theatre culture".[7] In 1888, when he became a student at the Lycée in Rennes at the age of fifteen, Jarry encountered a brief farcical sketch, Les Polonais, written by his friend Henri Morin, and Henri's brother Charles. This farce was part of a campaign by the students to ridicule their physics teacher, Félix-Frederic Hébert (1832–1917).[13] Les Polonais depicted their teacher as the King of an imaginary Poland,[2] and was one of many plays created around Père Hébé, the character that, in Jarry's hands, eventually evolved into King Ubu. Les Polonais was performed as a marionette play by the students at their homes in what they called the "Theatre des Phynances", named in honor of Père Hébert's lust for "phynance" (finance), or money. This prototype for Ubu Roi is long-lost, so the true and complete details of the authorship of Ubu Roi may never be known. It is clear, however, that Jarry considerably revised and expanded the play.

While his schoolmates lost interest in the Ubu legends when they left school, Jarry continued adding to and reworking the material for the rest of his short life. His plays are controversial for their scant respect to royalty, religion and society, their vulgarity and scatology,[14][15] their brutality and low comedy, and their perceived utter lack of literary finish.[16]

Ubu

Jarry's woodcut of Ubu

According to Jane Taylor, "the central character is notorious for his infantile engagement with his world. Ubu inhabits a domain of greedy self-gratification".[7] Jarry's metaphor for the modern man, he is an antihero—fat, ugly, vulgar, gluttonous, grandiose, dishonest, stupid, jejune, voracious, greedy, cruel, cowardly and evil—who grew out of schoolboy legends about the imaginary life of a hated teacher who had been at one point a slave on a Turkish galley, at another frozen in ice in Norway and at one more the King of Poland. Ubu Roi follows and explores his political, martial and felonious exploits.

"There is", writes Taylor, "a particular kind of pleasure for an audience watching these infantile attacks. Part of the satisfaction arises from the fact that in the burlesque mode which Jarry invents, there is no place for consequence. While Ubu may be relentless in his political aspirations, and brutal in his personal relations, he apparently has no measurable effect upon those who inhabit the farcical world which he creates around himself. He thus acts out our most childish rages and desires, in which we seek to gratify ourselves at all cost".[7] The derived adjective "ubuesque" is recurrent in French and francophone political debate.

Première

Both Ubu Cocu and Ubu Roi have a convoluted history, going through decades of rewriting and, in the case of the former, never arriving, despite Jarry's exertions, at a definitive version.[17] By the time Jarry wanted Ubu Roi published and staged, the Morins had lost their interest in schoolboy japes, and Henri gave Jarry permission to do whatever he wanted with them. Charles, however, later tried to claim credit, but it had never been a secret that he had had some involvement with the earliest version.

The first word of the play ("merdre", the French word for "shit", with an extra "r") may have been part of the reason for the response to the play in Paris. At the end of the performance a riot broke out, an incident which has since become "a stock element of Jarry biographia".[7] After this, Ubu Roi was outlawed from the stage, and Jarry moved it to a puppet theatre.

Jarry said to the audience in a curtain speech just before that first performance in Paris: "You are free to see in M. Ubu however many allusions you care to, or else a simple puppet—a school boy's caricature of one of his teachers who personified for him all the ugliness in the world".[14]

The poet W. B. Yeats, though he did not understand French, attended the premiere with a companion who interpreted the action for him. He recalled, in his memoir The Trembling of the Veil, his dismay that the play challenged the symbolist, spiritual-themed literature he advocated: "Feeling bound to support the most spirited party, we have shouted for the play, but that night at the Hotel Corneille I am very sad, for comedy, objectivity, has displayed its growing power once more. I say, 'After Stéphane Mallarmé, after Paul Verlaine, after Gustave Moreau, after Puvis de Chavannes, after our own verse, after all our subtle colour and nervous rhythm, after the faint mixed tints of Conder, what more is possible? After us the Savage God.'”.[18]

Adaptations

20th century

Ubu Rex, produced by Stairwell Theater in 2015, Brooklyn, NYC

In 1936 Tadeusz Boy-Żeleński, the great Polish modernist and prolific writer and translator created in Polish Ubu Król czyli Polacy ("King Ubu, otherwise, The Poles"). Some of his phraseology in the play has passed into the language. In 1990, at the invitation of the Munich Opera, Krzysztof Penderecki wrote the Opera buffa on Jarry's theme, entitled Ubu Rex staged on 8 July 1991 for the opening of the Munich Opera Festival. The production was later put on in Poland in 2003.

The first English translation was Ubu Roi. Drama in Five acts followed by the Song of Disembraining by Barbara Wright for which she wrote the preface. It was illustrated by Franciszka Themerson and published by the Gaberbocchus Press in 1951.[19]

In 1964 the Stockholm Puppet theatre produced a highly popular version of "Ubu Roi" directed by and scenery by Franciszka Themerson.[20]

Ubu Roi was translated into Serbian in 1964 by Ljubomir Draškić and performed at Atelje 212 theatre in Belgrade for the next 20 years when Zoran Radmilović who played Père Ubu, died. The play was so successful at the box-office that it was adapted into a movie in 1973.

Ubu Roi was translated into Czech by Jiří Voskovec and Jan Werich as Král Ubu, and premiered in 1928 at Osvobozené divadlo. The play was banned in Czechoslovakia after the 1968 Soviet invasion.

The play was the basis for Jan Lenica's animated film Ubu et la Grande Gidouille (1976).

In 1976–1977 Oakley Hall III translated and adapted Ubu Roi (called Ubu Rex) and its sequels, and directed them in New York City Off-Off-Broadway and at the Lexington Conservatory Theatre in Lexington, New York.[21] The adaptations starred Richard Zobel, who also produced the play and created the masks for it.[22]

In Lithuania (then part of the USSR) the play was adapted as Karalius Ūbas by director Jonas Vaitkus in 1983.

The play has been adapted for an opera with libretto by Michael Finnissy and Andrew Toovey with music by Andrew Toovey. Production by the Banff Centre Theatre, Canada, in collaboration with Music Theatre Wales (May 1992). Directed by Keith Turnbull.

A musical adaptation, Ubu Rock, book by Andrei Belgrader and Shelly Berc, music and lyrics by Rusty Magee, premiered at the American Repertory Theater in 1995 and was remounted at ART the following year.

The play was adapted for the Czech film Král Ubu, directed by in 1996. The film received three Czech Lion Awards.

Sherry C. M. Lindquist's adaptation was performed in Chicago, at The Public Theater in New York City, at the International Festival of Puppet Theater, and at the Edison Theater, St. Louis, Missouri, by Hystopolis Productions, Chicago, from 1996 to 1997.

Jane Taylor adapted Ubu Roi as Ubu and the Truth Commission (1998), a play critical of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission, which was formed in response to the atrocities committed during apartheid.

21st century

2012 production of Ubu Roi, produced by the National School of Drama, Delhi and directed by Deepan Sivaraman

In Poland the play was adapted for the film Ubu Król (2003) by Piotr Szulkin,[23] highlighting the grotesque nature of political life in Poland immediately after the fall of communism.

The play was translated by David Ball in in 2010, and performed at the University of Virginia the same year.

Inspired by the black comedy of corruption within Ubu Roi, the Puerto Rican absurdist narrative United States of Banana (2011) by Giannina Braschi dramatizes, with over-the-top grotesque flourishes of "pataphysics", the fall of the American Empire and the liberation of Puerto Rico.[24][25]

The play was adapted and directed by Dash Kruck as part of Vena Cava Production's 2013 mainstage season. Performed in Brisbane, Australia, the adaptation made cultural political references to Queensland's Premier Campbell Newman, even including him in the show's promotional poster.[26]

In 2014, Toronto's One Little Goat Theatre Company produced Ubu Mayor: A Harmful Bit of Fun, combining the merde-filled sensibilities of Ubu Roi with the internationally renowned antics, absurdities and obscenities of Toronto's mayor Rob Ford and his brother Doug.

In 2016, the play was adapted by Jared Strange into UBU ROY: An American Tale, an updated version of the original play through the lens of the 2016 United States presidential election. The show opened November 3, 2016, in Lubbock, Texas, as the Lubbock Community Theatre's first play in their "LCT After Dark" season.[27][28]

In 2020, the play was adapted and set in modern-day Tasmania, taking place on a purpose-built stage in the Cataract Gorge.

In 2020, the play was also adapted into a musical by Kneehigh Theatre company.

In February 2020, staged a world-premiere adaptation in Atlanta, GA called UBU, which imagined the titular character of King Ubu as a headmaster walking the halls of a quintessential American schoolyard and called into question the fundamental system by which the United States governs and instructs its citizenry.

References in popular culture

Alfred Jarry is one of the few real figures to appear among the many literary characters in Les Faux-Monnayeurs (The Counterfeiters), by André Gide. In Part III, Chapter 8, Jarry attends a literary banquet, where the fictional Comte de Passavant introduces him as the author of Ubu Roi, saying that they (the literary set) "lui confèrent du génie, parce que le public vient de siffler sa pièce. C'est tout de même ce qu'on a donné le plus curieux au théâtre depuis longtemps".[29] They "have dubbed him a genius because the public have just damned his play. All the same, it's the most interesting thing that's been put on the stage for a long time".[30]

Joan Miró used Ubu Roi as a subject of his 50 1940 lithographs called the Barcelona Series. These pictures could be Ubu Roi but they also satirise General Franco and his generals after he had won the Spanish Civil War.[31]

In her book Linda McCartney's Sixties: Portrait of an Era, Linda McCartney mentions that Paul had become interested in avant-garde theatre and immersed himself in the writings of Jarry. This is how McCartney discovered the word "pataphysical", which he used in the lyrics of his song "Maxwell's Silver Hammer".[32]

The Walter Jon Williams' novel Angel Station is based on the plot.

Puerto Rican novelist Giannina Braschi's postmodern dramatic novel United States of Banana is a metaphorical riff on Ubu Roi.[33]

The American experimental rock group Pere Ubu is named after the main character. Their 2009 album Long Live Père Ubu! is an adaptation of Jarry's play.[34]

Dead Can Dance's frontman Brendan Perry makes a reference to Père Ubu in the song "The Bogus Man" (on his second solo album Ark) with the line "Hail, Father Ubu, here comes the Grand Guignol".

The figure of Ubu Roi, particularly as depicted by Jarry in his woodcut, appears to have inspired the character Oogie Boogie in Tim Burton's animated film The Nightmare Before Christmas.[35]

Television producer Gary David Goldberg named his dog Ubu and his production company Ubu Productions after Ubu Roi.

Australian band Methyl Ethel's song "Ubu" contains references to the play.[36]

Cast

Notes

  1. ^ a b Hill, Phillip G. Our Dramatic Heritage. Vol. 6. Fairleigh Dickenson, 1995, p. 30. ISBN 0838634214
  2. ^ a b Ford, Mark (May 10, 2012), "The King of Charisma", The New York Review of Books. 59 (8): 63–64
  3. ^ Ball, David. "UBU-ing a Theatre-Translation: Defense and Illustration". Metamorphoses, a Journal of Literary Translation. Spring and Fall. 2006 [1]
  4. ^ Fell, JIll. Alfred Jarry, an Imagination in Revolt. Rosemont Publishing & Printing Corp. p. 142
  5. ^ Jarry, Alfred. Ubu Roi. Dover (2003)
  6. ^ Benedikt, Michael and Wellwarth. Modern French Theatre. Dutton. 1966. pp. x-xi
  7. ^ a b c d e Taylor, Jane. "Ubu and the Truth Commission". University of Cape Town Press. 2007. ISBN 978 19197 13168 p. iii
  8. ^ Hill, Phillip G. Our Dramatic Heritage. Vol. 6. Fairleigh Dickenson, 1995, p. 31. ISBN 0838634214
  9. ^ Innes, Christopher. Avant-Garde Theatre: 1892 1992. Routledge. 1993, p. 24. ISBN 0-415-06517-8
  10. ^ Faustroll, Dr. Pataphysica 2: Pataphysica E Alchimia, Volume 2. iUniverse (2004). ISBN 9780595337453
  11. ^ Offord, M. H. Francophone Literatures: A Literary and Linguistic Companion. Psychology Press (2001). ISBN 9780415198400 page 123
  12. ^ Jarry, Alfred. The Ubu Plays. Nick Hearn Books, Ltd. 1997. Introduction.
  13. ^ Pindar, Ian. "Merrrrdrrrre! Alfred Jarry and Pere Ubu". The Times Literary Supplement. 17 April 2013.
  14. ^ a b Jarry, Alfred. Ubu Roi. Dover. 2003
  15. ^ Ubu carries as his weapons a pshittasword and a pshittashook, while his sceptre takes the traditional form of a commode scrubber; at one point, he thrusts his conscience down said commode. His peers, meanwhile, bear such names as MacNure, Pissweet and Pissale. In addition, the first word of Ubu Roi is "merdre", deliberately close to merde, meaning "excrement".
  16. ^ Ubu Roi has a loose narrative thread, a large number of characters who appear for only a short scene and a mashup of high literature and slang, much of it invented.
  17. ^ The third play was the only one wholly written by the adult Jarry.
  18. ^ Yeats, Autobiographies: Reveries Over Childhood and Youth and The Trembling of the Veil, London: Macmillan.
  19. ^ Jarry. Ubu Roi. Drama in Five acts followed by the Song of Disembraining. First English translation and preface by Barbara Wright. Drawings by Franciszka Themerson. London: Gaberbocchus Press. 1951
  20. ^ Meschke website with photograph of his Ubu
  21. ^ Oakley Hall III (2010). Jarry and Me: The Autobiography of Alfred Jarry. Absintheur Press. ISBN 9780977421459.
  22. ^ Oakley Hall III. "UBU ROI by Alfred Jarry; Translated by Oakley Hall III" (Script and Production Notes). Firlefanz-Gallery.com. Retrieved December 23, 2017.
  23. ^ https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0380779/
  24. ^ Braschi, Giannina (September 2012). "What to Read Now: Mixed-Genre Literature". World Literature Today. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
  25. ^ Youker, Timothy E., Title; Loan, Title (2011-07-06). "War and Peace and Ubu: Colonialism, the Exception, and Jarry's Legacy". Criticism. 57 (4): 533. doi:10.13110/criticism.57.4.0533. JSTOR 10.13110/criticism.57.4.0533.
  26. ^ Vena Cava Productions presents UBU ROI. Wherevent (2013-07-22). Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  27. ^ Kelly, Aden. "LCT After Dark debuts Thursday". Retrieved 2016-11-03.
  28. ^ Falkenberg, Emily (2016-11-01). "Looking to Find Humor in this Election? Lubbock Community Theatre Has You Covered". EVERYTHINGLUBBOCK. Retrieved 2016-11-03.
  29. ^ Les Faux-Monnayeurs, André Gide. edition Folio Plus Classiques. p. 319
  30. ^ The Counterfeiters, André Gide, translated by Dorothy Bussy. Vintage Books. p. 289 [2]
  31. ^ Searle, Adrian (11 April 2011). "Joan Miró: A fine line". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
  32. ^ McCartney, Linda. Linda McCartney's Sixties: Portrait of an Era. Bullfinch Press, p. 153. 1992
  33. ^ Torres, Felix (2015). United States of Banana: A Postcolonial Dramatic Fiction (Thesis). Columbia University. doi:10.7916/d87h1j3q.
  34. ^ "Long Live Père Ubu!"
  35. ^ Atomic Caravan Blog
  36. ^ "Methyl Ethel - Ubu". DIY. Retrieved 2018-07-28.

Bibliography

  • Jarry, Alfred. Ubu Roi. Translated by Barbara Wright and illustrated by Franciszka Themerson. Gaberbocchus Press. 1951
  • Jarry, Alfred. Ubu Roi. Translated by David Ball as Ubu the King. [Norton Anthology of Drama, 2010.]
  • Jarry, Alfred. Ubu Roi. Translated by Beverly Keith and Gershon Legman. Dover, 2003.
  • Innes, Christopher. Avant-Garde Theatre 1892-1992. London and New York: Routledge, 1993. 0415065186.
  • Taylor, Jane. Ubu and the Truth Commission. Cape Town: University of Cape Town Press, 2007.
  • Pile, Stephen, The Return of Heroic Failures, Harmondsworth, Penguin Books, 1988.
  • Fell, Jill: Alfred Jarry: An Inagination in Revolt. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. 2005
  • Brotchie, Alastair. Alfred Jarry, a Pataphysical Life. MIT Press. 2013. ISBN 978 0 262 01619 3

External links

Related Post

141 thoughts on “Ubu roi

  1. I just want to say I’m newbie to blogging and certainly enjoyed this blog. Almost certainly I’m going to bookmark your blog post . You absolutely come with amazing posts. Kudos for sharing with us your web page.

  2. As much as I dislike “Independence Day”, at least you got a good idea of what the aliens looked like in the famous autopsy scene.

  3. Woah this is just an insane amount of information, must of taken ages to compile so thank you so much for just sharing it with all of us. If your ever in any need of related info, perhaps a bit of coaching, seduction techniques or just general tips, just check out my own site!

  4. An outstanding share! I’ve just forwarded this onto a coworker who was doing a little homework on this. And he actually ordered me breakfast due to the fact that I discovered it for him… lol. So let me reword this…. Thanks for the meal!! But yeah, thanx for spending time to talk about this subject here on your internet site.

  5. Good day! I could have sworn I’ve been to this blog before but after browsing through a few of the posts I realized it’s new to me. Nonetheless, I’m certainly pleased I came across it and I’ll be book-marking it and checking back often!

  6. An impressive share! I’ve just forwarded this onto a friend who had been doing a little research on this. And he actually bought me breakfast due to the fact that I stumbled upon it for him… lol. So allow me to reword this…. Thank YOU for the meal!! But yeah, thanx for spending some time to discuss this topic here on your web site.

  7. I’m impressed, I have to admit. Seldom do I come across a blog that’s both equally educative and entertaining, and without a doubt, you’ve hit the nail on the head. The issue is something that too few folks are speaking intelligently about. I am very happy that I stumbled across this in my hunt for something regarding this.

  8. I’m pretty pleased to uncover this site. I need to to thank you for ones time for this particularly fantastic read!! I definitely savored every little bit of it and I have you saved as a favorite to see new information in your web site.

  9. Hello! I could have sworn I’ve been to this website before but after going through some of the articles I realized it’s new to me. Nonetheless, I’m certainly pleased I stumbled upon it and I’ll be book-marking it and checking back regularly!

  10. Next time I read a blog, Hopefully it does not fail me just as much as this particular one. After all, Yes, it was my choice to read, however I genuinely thought you would have something helpful to talk about. All I hear is a bunch of moaning about something that you could fix if you weren’t too busy searching for attention.

  11. Excellent web site you’ve got here.. It’s difficult to find good quality writing like yours nowadays. I truly appreciate individuals like you! Take care!!

  12. Hi! I could have sworn I’ve visited this website before but after browsing through some of the posts I realized it’s new to me. Anyways, I’m definitely pleased I found it and I’ll be book-marking it and checking back frequently.

  13. Having read this I thought it was extremely informative. I appreciate you taking the time and effort to put this content together. I once again find myself spending a lot of time both reading and leaving comments. But so what, it was still worth it!

  14. Nice post. I learn something totally new and challenging on websites I stumbleupon everyday. It’s always exciting to read through content from other authors and practice something from their sites.

  15. Hi, I do think this is a great site. I stumbledupon it ;) I will revisit once again since i have saved as a favorite it. Money and freedom is the greatest way to change, may you be rich and continue to help others.

  16. Everything is very open with a precise explanation of the challenges. It was truly informative. Your website is useful. Thanks for sharing.

  17. An impressive share! I have just forwarded this onto a colleague who was conducting a little research on this. And he in fact ordered me breakfast simply because I found it for him… lol. So allow me to reword this…. Thanks for the meal!! But yeah, thanks for spending the time to discuss this issue here on your internet site.

  18. This is the right site for anybody who would like to find out about this topic. You understand so much its almost hard to argue with you (not that I actually would want to…HaHa). You certainly put a brand new spin on a subject which has been discussed for years. Excellent stuff, just wonderful.

  19. This is the right site for anybody who hopes to find out about this topic. You realize so much its almost tough to argue with you (not that I really would want to…HaHa). You definitely put a brand new spin on a subject that’s been discussed for decades. Wonderful stuff, just great.

  20. I’m excited to find this site. I wanted to thank you for ones time just for this wonderful read!! I definitely savored every bit of it and I have you book marked to look at new stuff on your website.

  21. Good post. I learn something totally new and challenging on blogs I stumbleupon everyday. It’s always interesting to read articles from other writers and practice something from other web sites.

  22. I have to thank you for the efforts you have put in penning this site. I really hope to check out the same high-grade content by you in the future as well. In fact, your creative writing abilities has encouraged me to get my own, personal website now ;)

  23. An outstanding share! I have just forwarded this onto a coworker who has been doing a little research on this. And he actually bought me dinner due to the fact that I discovered it for him… lol. So let me reword this…. Thanks for the meal!! But yeah, thanks for spending the time to discuss this topic here on your internet site.

  24. May I simply just say what a comfort to discover somebody who really knows what they’re talking about over the internet. You certainly understand how to bring an issue to light and make it important. More and more people really need to check this out and understand this side of your story. I can’t believe you’re not more popular since you most certainly have the gift.

  25. I’m amazed, I must say. Seldom do I come across a blog that’s equally educative and entertaining, and without a doubt, you have hit the nail on the head. The problem is something that not enough folks are speaking intelligently about. I am very happy I found this in my hunt for something relating to this.

  26. Next time I read a blog, I hope that it does not disappoint me as much as this particular one. I mean, I know it was my choice to read, but I actually thought you’d have something useful to say. All I hear is a bunch of moaning about something that you can fix if you were not too busy seeking attention.

  27. Having read this I believed it was extremely informative. I appreciate you finding the time and energy to put this short article together. I once again find myself spending a significant amount of time both reading and posting comments. But so what, it was still worth it.

  28. Can I simply just say what a relief to discover a person that actually understands what they are discussing on the net. You certainly understand how to bring an issue to light and make it important. A lot more people must look at this and understand this side of your story. I was surprised you aren’t more popular given that you most certainly possess the gift.

  29. Wow! This can be one particular of the most useful blogs We’ve ever arrive across on this subject. Actually Fantastic. I’m also a specialist in this topic therefore I can understand your effort.

  30. I seriously love your website.. Pleasant colors & theme. Did you build this amazing site yourself? Please reply back as I’m trying to create my own site and would like to know where you got this from or just what the theme is named. Thanks.

  31. Having read this I thought it was extremely enlightening. I appreciate you taking the time and effort to put this article together. I once again find myself spending a significant amount of time both reading and commenting. But so what, it was still worthwhile.

  32. Spot on with this write-up, I actually believe that this web site needs much more attention. I’ll probably be back again to read through more, thanks for the info.

  33. I was very pleased to uncover this great site. I wanted to thank you for your time just for this wonderful read!! I definitely loved every bit of it and i also have you saved as a favorite to look at new information in your web site.

  34. Your style is very unique compared to other folks I’ve read stuff from. Thank you for posting when you’ve got the opportunity, Guess I’ll just book mark this web site.

  35. After looking over a few of the blog posts on your web site, I seriously like your way of writing a blog. I saved as a favorite it to my bookmark webpage list and will be checking back soon. Please visit my website as well and let me know how you feel.

  36. That is a really good tip especially to those new to the blogosphere. Simple but very precise information… Appreciate your sharing this one. A must read post!

  37. Hello there! I simply want to give you a huge thumbs up for your great information you’ve got right here on this post. I will be returning to your blog for more soon.

  38. Howdy! This post couldn’t be written any better! Reading through this article reminds me of my previous roommate! He always kept talking about this. I will send this post to him. Fairly certain he’ll have a very good read. Thank you for sharing!

  39. Hi, I do believe this is a great blog. I stumbledupon it ;) I am going to come back yet again since i have book-marked it. Money and freedom is the greatest way to change, may you be rich and continue to guide other people.

  40. An outstanding share! I’ve just forwarded this onto a co-worker who has been doing a little homework on this. And he actually ordered me breakfast due to the fact that I found it for him… lol. So let me reword this…. Thank YOU for the meal!! But yeah, thanx for spending the time to talk about this topic here on your website.

  41. Having read this I thought it was really informative. I appreciate you taking the time and effort to put this informative article together. I once again find myself personally spending way too much time both reading and leaving comments. But so what, it was still worth it.

  42. Spot on with this write-up, I seriously believe this site needs much more attention. I’ll probably be returning to read more, thanks for the information.

  43. Aw, this was an exceptionally good post. Finding the time and actual effort to generate a superb article… but what can I say… I hesitate a whole lot and don’t manage to get nearly anything done.

  44. I’d like to thank you for the efforts you have put in penning this blog. I really hope to see the same high-grade content by you later on as well. In fact, your creative writing abilities has motivated me to get my own blog now ;)

  45. Howdy! I could have sworn I’ve been to this website before but after browsing through some of the articles I realized it’s new to me. Anyhow, I’m definitely happy I stumbled upon it and I’ll be book-marking it and checking back frequently.

  46. After I initially left a comment I appear to have clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and from now on each time a comment is added I get 4 emails with the exact same comment. Is there an easy method you can remove me from that service? Thanks.

  47. After I originally left a comment I seem to have clicked on the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now whenever a comment is added I receive four emails with the exact same comment. Perhaps there is a means you are able to remove me from that service? Kudos.

  48. Can I just say what a comfort to uncover someone who genuinely knows what they’re talking about over the internet. You definitely understand how to bring a problem to light and make it important. More people need to look at this and understand this side of the story. It’s surprising you’re not more popular because you most certainly have the gift.

  49. Good day! I could have sworn I’ve visited this website before but after browsing through many of the posts I realized it’s new to me. Anyhow, I’m certainly happy I discovered it and I’ll be bookmarking it and checking back often!

  50. Having read this I thought it was very informative. I appreciate you taking the time and energy to put this informative article together. I once again find myself spending a lot of time both reading and commenting. But so what, it was still worth it!

  51. Everything is very open with a clear clarification of the challenges. It was really informative. Your site is very useful. Thank you for sharing.

  52. Good web site you’ve got here.. It’s difficult to find good quality writing like yours these days. I honestly appreciate individuals like you! Take care!!

  53. Nice post. I learn something new and challenging on websites I stumbleupon every day. It’s always helpful to read content from other authors and practice something from other websites.

  54. Excellent blog you have here.. It’s difficult to find high-quality writing like yours these days. I really appreciate people like you! Take care!!

  55. After looking into a number of the blog articles on your web page, I seriously appreciate your technique of writing a blog. I added it to my bookmark website list and will be checking back in the near future. Take a look at my website too and let me know what you think.

  56. Hi, I do think this is a great web site. I stumbledupon it ;) I am going to return once again since i have book-marked it. Money and freedom is the greatest way to change, may you be rich and continue to guide others.

  57. I would like to thank you for the efforts you’ve put in penning this website. I am hoping to view the same high-grade content from you in the future as well. In truth, your creative writing abilities has encouraged me to get my own, personal blog now ;)

  58. An impressive share! I have just forwarded this onto a friend who has been conducting a little homework on this. And he in fact bought me breakfast due to the fact that I stumbled upon it for him… lol. So allow me to reword this…. Thank YOU for the meal!! But yeah, thanx for spending the time to discuss this topic here on your website.

  59. An interesting discussion is worth comment. I do think that you ought to write more about this topic, it might not be a taboo matter but generally people do not speak about these issues. To the next! All the best.

  60. Excellent blog you’ve got here.. It’s difficult to find high-quality writing like yours nowadays. I seriously appreciate individuals like you! Take care!!

  61. May I simply just say what a relief to uncover somebody who really knows what they are talking about on the web. You actually understand how to bring a problem to light and make it important. A lot more people ought to read this and understand this side of the story. I was surprised you are not more popular because you definitely possess the gift.

  62. I’m amazed, I must say. Rarely do I come across a blog that’s equally educative and engaging, and let me tell you, you’ve hit the nail on the head. The problem is an issue that too few men and women are speaking intelligently about. Now i’m very happy that I found this in my hunt for something regarding this.

  63. Oh my goodness! Amazing article dude! Thank you so much, However I am going through problems with your RSS. I don’t understand why I cannot subscribe to it. Is there anybody getting similar RSS problems? Anyone who knows the solution can you kindly respond? Thanx!

  64. Spot on with this write-up, I honestly believe that this web site needs far more attention. I’ll probably be back again to read through more, thanks for the advice!

  65. Thanks a lot for sharing this with all folks you actually recognize what you are talking about! Bookmarked. Kindly additionally seek advice from my website =). We can have a hyperlink trade contract among us|

  66. Hi there! Do you know if they make any plugins to help with Search Engine Optimization? I’m trying to get my blog to rank for some targeted keywords but I’m not seeing very good success. If you know of any please share. Thanks!|

  67. Howdy! I know this is somewhat off topic but I was wondering if you knew where I could get a captcha plugin for my comment form? I’m using the same blog platform as yours and I’m having problems finding one? Thanks a lot!|

  68. Woah! I’m really loving the template/theme of this website. It’s simple, yet effective. A lot of times it’s very hard to get that “perfect balance” between user friendliness and visual appeal. I must say you have done a excellent job with this. Also, the blog loads extremely quick for me on Chrome. Superb Blog!|

  69. I just want to mention I’m beginner to blogging and actually loved you’re blog site. Most likely I’m likely to bookmark your site . You surely have terrific stories. Regards for sharing with us your web site.

  70. An impressive share, I merely with all this onto a colleague who was simply performing a little analysis on this. And then he in reality bought me breakfast because I uncovered it for him.. smile. So i want to reword that: Thnx to the treat! But yeah Thnkx for spending time to go over this, I’m strongly about it and love reading much more about this topic. If at all possible, as you grow expertise, might you mind updating your blog post with an increase of details? It’s highly great for me. Big thumb up due to this text!

  71. That is a very good tip particularly to those new to the blogosphere. Brief but very precise info… Thanks for sharing this one. A must read article.

  72. This is the perfect blog for everyone who would like to find out about this topic. You realize a whole lot its almost tough to argue with you (not that I personally would want to…HaHa). You certainly put a fresh spin on a topic that’s been discussed for decades. Great stuff, just excellent.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.